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Coordinated Security Analysis


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The CACM Guideline defines a Remedial Action as any measure applied by a TSO or several TSOs, manually or automatically, in order to maintain Operational Security. Remedial Actions serve, in particular, to fulfil the (N-1)-Criterion and to maintain Operational Security Limits. It must be understood as Remedial Actions being mainly dedicated to Normal and Alert States whereas System Defence Plan measures are to be used specifically in Emergency State when (N-1)-Criterion and Operational Security Limits are already violated.

    Remedial Actions may include, but are not limited to the following:
  • re-dispatching or counter trade actions (including Demand Side Response and increase/decrease energy storage);
  • topology changes in the network;
  • adjusting flows by phase shifters and other flow controlling devices;
  • use of reactive power devices (tap-changers, reactors, capacitor banks, SVC, etc.);
  • request (or control if available) additional voltage/reactive support from power plants;
  • HVDC Systems active and reactive power control; and
  • System Protection Schemes actions